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Prefixes--Amount, Relationship, Judgment, Other Prefixes

Page history last edited by kjaafar 12 years, 1 month ago

The activities are based on the text: Mahnke, M. K, & Duffy, C. (1996). The Heinemann ELT TOEFL Preparation Course. Oxford, UK: Heinemann.



  1. Click EDIT PAGE (top).
  2. From your handout, copy the area of meaning and example words.
  3. From the RESOURCES below, find 5 additional example words.
  4. Give a definition for two of the additional example words you found using the meaning given for the root or prefix. Highlight the root word in the definition.
  5. For 2 words, give the definition using the root meaning and highlighting it.
  6. Choose one word from your examples, and from the concordance in the resources below, copy a sentence with your word.
  7. For that one word, write your own simple sentence, using the root meaning of the word. Highlight it.
  8. Copy (CTRL+C) the information from the resources and paste (CTRL+V) it into the table in the Wiki.




  1. Dictionary of Latin & Greek Words in Modern English Vocabulary (Put the prefix or root in the search area to find many words and definitions for it.).

  2. To find definitions and additional words/expressions, see Online Dictionaries.
  3. Usage Examples: From Vocabulary.com, copy/paste a sample sentence that illustrates the meaning of the word clearly.
  4. Then write a simple sentence of your own with the same word. 


V7: Predict Meaning Using Prefixes--Amount, Relationship, Judment, Other

Student Prefixes for amount  Meaning Example
Words (copy from handout)
3 additional

For 2 of the words, give a definition, using the meaning of the prefix and highlight it.

For one of the words, copy a sentence from the concordance with your word. For one word, write your own simple sentence, showing the root meaning. Comments Evaluation


(too much)




extravagance .




extrasensory :

sensory abilities.



Excessive or wasteful spending of money.

Much more damaging to Dyson's credibility, however, is his belief in extrasensory perception, sometimes called "psi".

Scientific AmericanJan 8, 2011 
The Extravagance of weddings is a popular topic.  good words, examples, and sentences!   
    hyper-   too much   hyperactive






hyperactive :

too much active; such as, the inability to relax or to sit quietly.



A reference to too much sense of pain

  • Their hypersensitivity to criticism is likely to be a problem for supervisors as well, particularly in performance assessment.
  • The new lotion makes my skin hypersensitive to sunlight.
good words (#1 and 2), examples, and sentences   
   hypo-  too little  hypoglycemic






hypoactive :

Less than normally active or under active.



too little feeling of pain when exposed to cold.


In “hypoactive delirium,” they’re lethargic, sleepy and not making eye contact.Confusion and disorganized thinking: Can they track a conversation? 

It is nice easier to have a  hypoactive child.

   omni-   all, every  omnicole

ante omni





1. omniscent

2. omnipotent

ante omnia :

Before all things.

First of all.



A ruler of all things.



Living every where or in all places.

1. all-knowing

2. all-powerful 

The exposition above is delivered not by an omniscient narrator but as gossip.

To be omniscient is to know everything. This often refers to a special power of God.

ante Omnia we have to discuss our problems.

Please see the words in red, which are much more common.  4.7 / 5 points 
Amani   out-  surpassing



   pene-   almost

peninsula (almost/half island)

penultimate (almost last)

   ultra-  beyond




1- ultimo 

2- ultimatum

3- penultimate

1-  in or of the month preceding the present one.


3- next to the last.

Dear Sir,—Your esteemed favor of the 15th ultimo was duly received.  This part is  penultimate.    


less than



      Homework, Amani!  0 / 5 points  


 Prefixes for Relationship of together or separate

Student Prefixes for 
Meaning Example
Words (copy from handout)
3 additional

For 2 of the words, give a definition, using the meaning of the prefix and highlight it.

For one of the words, copy a sentence from the concordance with your word. For one word, write your own simple sentence, showing the root meaning. Comments Evaluation
Nouf    auto-   self   autocratic            


1. self-determination

2. self-reliant

   ab- away from  



  col-  together/

1. collaborate

2. collocate 

      Homework, Nouf!!!  0 / 5 points 
Khalid   com- with commune            














Collection: The act of gathering something together        

with, together


1. symmetry

2. symposium 

  syn- together


1. synthetical 

2. syndicate

Homework, Khalid!  0 / 5 points       


Prefixes that make a judment


Student Prefixes for Judgment Meaning Example
Words (copy from handout)
3 additional

For 2 of the words, give a definition, using the meaning of the prefix and highlight it.

For one of the words, copy a sentence from the concordance with your word. For one word, write your own simple sentence, showing the root meaning. Comments Evaluation
Gopal   anti-  against




1. antitoxin 


2. antibiotic


3. antiparticle


4. antiseptic


5. antitrust



An antibody that can neutralize a specific toxin.


A chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that can kill microorganisms and cure bacterial infections. 

Calcium gluconate and gas gangrene antitoxin as well as antibiotics are helpful. 


Reported data did not indicate specific antibiotics but did note that some were given intravenously and some orally.

Tetanus is an  antitoxin given for short-term immunization against tetanus in cases of possible exposure to the tetanus bacillus.


About 80 percent of antibiotics used on farms are given through feed. 

Good examples, definitions,
and sentences! 





1. contradiction 


2. contraceptive


3. Contrapositive


4. contraband


5. contraction

Opposition between two conflicting forces or ideas


An agent or device intended to prevent conception


Seeming contradictions dissolve and weaknesses appear as unsuccessful aspirations.


Don’t certain oral contraceptives interact in scary ways with other common medications, such as antibiotics? 

Republicans were quick to point out contradictions between the President's world words and his actions.  Good examples, definitions, and sentences   




1. dysmenorrhea


2. dysentery


3. disfunctional


4. dysadaption


5. dystopia 

painful menstruation


An infection of the intestines marked by severe diarrhea



Dysmenorrhea accounts for an estimated 600 million lost working hours and $2 billion in productivity costs in the U.S., the researchers said. 


Air polluted by bad drainage or leaky sewers has been considered responsible for diphtheria as well as for typhoid fever and dysentery.

Dysmenorrhea is caused by Pelvic pain. 




Consequence of 3 days diarrhea leads to dysentery

#3 is the most commonly used word with dys-/dis-, meaning badly functioning, e.g. a disfunctional relationship. 4.9 / 5 points 
Gaudence   mal- bad  maladjusted

1. malformation







 2. malfunction










4. malnourished







5. maltreatment


Faulty or anomalous formation or structure of parts, especially of a living body


Faulty, abnormal, or bad functioning


To administer, execute, or manage inefficiently or badly.


Suffering from or provided with insufficient nutrition or nourishment; undernourished


The action of treating badly; the state of being treated badly.

Peculiar malformations of body and characteristics of mind often persist in families from generation to generation. 

Gore, George



But complications such as infection, implant wear or malfunction are not uncommon.

Scientific AmericanMar 5, 2012

She underwent surgery to correct a heart malformation.

good examples, definitions, and sentences   
   mis- bad, wrong, not misconception 

1. misbehavior











2. miscall







 3. misdiagnose






4. misfortune






5. misusage






Unacceptable conduct, especially naughtiness, disobedience, or causing trouble that is exhibited, particularly, by children.


To use the wrong, or an inappropriate, name for someone or something. 


1. To make an incorrect diagnosis.
2. To diagnose erroneously.


An unnecessary and unforeseen trouble resulting from a bad event


1. A wrong or inappropriate use of language.
2. Abusive, or bad, treatment

Celinda Lake, a Democratic strategist, says women politicians are punished more harshly than men for misbehavior.

New York TimesJun 11, 2011 


I should observe that the leopard is not the only animal miscalled in this country.

Adams, H.C.
His misbehavior made his mother nervous.  Excellent words, definitions, and sentences!   
   bene- good ,well  benefit

1. benevolence 











2. benefactor









3. benediction

Disposition to do good, desire to promote the happiness of others, kindness, generosity, charitable feeling


a person who is good to other people; a person who helps people or institutions (especially with financial help)


The utterance of a blessing

He was speaking chiefly about benevolence and charity when he used this figure.


Alexander, Arch.




His work is sustained thanks to financial aid from a few benefactors, including doctors he works with.


New York TimesApr 25, 2012 

Tom said their employer was of great benevolence. She allowed all her workers to live in her home temporarily. excellent words, definitions, and sentences  5 / 5 points 
Sadraque    eu- good, normal, pleasing, agreeable, painful.   eudipsia, eutrophy 












The deliberate ending of life in individuals with an incurable and painful disease. (It's a "good" , i.e. painless death.) 

a condition of feeling healthy and confortable.  

Some people might be concerned that such a system would amount to voluntary euthanasia or assisted suicide. Euthanasia has been a great dilemma controversial in the United States. good; show the meaning of the prefix in the definition.   

for, before, forward.





















Making changes to improve something before problems happen, rather than reacting to problems and then changing things.




In commercial use, it is an account drawn up to show the market value of certain products.Used for importing products, a pro forma invoice must sometimes be presented in advance to arrange for payment or permits.

He was always proactive, making recommendations on guys we should recruit.       Amenda Rosalyn should be proactive in identifying problems in her class.   good examples, definitions, and sentences   


Other Prefixes

Student Other Prefixes  Meaning Example
Words (copy from handout)
3 additional

For 2 of the words, give a definition, using the meaning of the prefix and highlight it.

For one of the words, copy a sentence from the concordance with your word. For one word, write your own simple sentence, showing the root meaning. Comments Evaluation
Sadraque  ambi-   both, around, about  ambivalent



















ambilevous ambidexterity 

An earnest or eager desire for some type of achievement or distinction, as power, honor, fame, or wealth, and the willingness to strive for its attainment.


A situation in which something can be understood in more than one way and it is not clear which meaning is intended. (i.e. have 2 meanings)



 Even so, United’s The ambition of the United States to diversify has have brought complications. My ambition is to do get a master's degree in TESOL.   Good work, Sadraque  4.7 / 5 points 
Faeza   amphi-  around  amphitheater























a cold-blooded vertebrate animal that is born in water and breathes with gills. As the larva grows into its adult form, the animal's lungs develop the ability to breathe air, and the animal can live on land.


A family festival in ancient Athens in honor of the birth of a child, during which the child received its name. 

 These include clams, sharks, bony fish, an archaic amphibian that somewhat resembled a living crocodile, and lots of fossil wood.
New York Times Apr 13, 2012
Half of the amphibian species are is threatened. good examples; if amphi- means "around," then "amphibian" means "walk around."   
   be-  make  befriend









to make a fool of





make steady, calm

His own credit was at stake as well; no one must suppose that they could befool him.

Bj?rnson, Bj?rnstjerne  
Some people were befooled by lottery scams. good examples, definition, and sentences   
    hetero-  different  heterogeneous

















A word having the same spelling as another, but a different sound (pronunciation) and meaning: opposite of homonym and synonym.  



(genetics) the tendency of a crossbred organism to have qualities superior to those of either parent 

Each heteronym was given a biography, psychology, politics, religion, even physical description, and the main characters were interconnected.

The Guardian Dec 4, 2010 
The word "tear"means drop of water from the eye .Also "tear" means to rip. Therefore, they are heteronym. excellent example, Faeza!

4.8 / 5 points 

Carolyn   homo-  same  homogeneous





two words are homonyms if they are pronounced or spelled the same way but have different meanings



two words are homophones if they are pronounced the same way but differ in meaning or spelling or both


At restaurants, waiters will often suggest dishes that are considered special simply because they are expensive or their names are homonyms for words like "fortune."

TimeFeb 23, 2009


The Confusion of homonyms is a long-term problem for ESL students.

Good words, definitions, and sentences!   
   meta-  change  metabolism





a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity



a striking change in appearance or character or circumstances


I started to think about organisms as metaphors and octopuses kept coming to the top.

Scientific AmericanApr 5, 2012


If we say that computers have a memory, we uses a metaphor.

very nice! Good example sentence of your own!   
   neo-  new  neoclassicism





a newly invented word or phrase



having or showing belief in the need for economic growth in addition to traditional liberalistic values


In this way neologisms spring up in languages, and new dogmas in theology.

Sabatier, Auguste


The word 'use-friendly' is a neologism coming from the computer industry. 

good examples, definition, and sentences   
   pseudo-  false  pseudonym





an activity resembling science but based on fallacious (= false) assumptions



temporary outgrowth used by some microorganisms as an organ of feeding or locomotion


But he was writing during a tremendously exciting time for science — he was a bit younger than Isaac Newton — as well as pseudoscience, like alchemy.

New York TimesApr 13, 2012


Some people consider some superstitious believes beliefs as pseudoscience

Good examples, definition, and sentences  5 / 5 points 


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